Chapter 1 – The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe – History – Class X

Chapter 1 – The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe

Fill  in the blanks
1] In 1848, Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
2] In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
3] Absolutist, in history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralized, militarized and repressive.
3] During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
4] The concept of nationalism led to emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
5] A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal is known as Plebiscite.
6] France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch.
7] The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
8] The Civil Code of 1804 was known as the Napoleonic Code.
9] Napoleonic wars began when Napoleon invaded Italy in 1797.
10] The Greek struggle for independence began in 1821.
11] The Unification of Italy occurred between the years 1859 – 1870.
12] The Unification of Germany occurred between the years 1866 – 1871.
13] The Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria-Hungary.
14] In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
15] In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish language.
16] Industrialization began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century.
17] The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.
18] In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
19] In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
20] Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit ofconservatism.
21] The objective of Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
22] Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic in nature.
23] The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
24] Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.
25] The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.
26] The German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people das volk.
27] The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.
28] In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
29] During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states.
30] Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
31] Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.
32] Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
33] In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
34] Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
35] During the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
36] Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
37] The symbol of Crown of oak leaves meant heroism.
38] the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called theBalkans.
39] A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
Define:
A] Absolutist – Literally, a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralized, militarized and repressive.
B] Utopian – A vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
C] Plebiscite – A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
D] Conservatism – A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
E] Ideology – System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
Questions & Answers
Q.1. How did the artists of the time of the French REvolution personified Liberty?
Ans:
The artists of the time of the French Revolution personified Liberty as a female figure.
Q.2. what was Sorrieu’s utopian vision?
Ans:
In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
Q.3. What does The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics – The Pact Between Nations, the painting prepared by Sorrieu depict?
Ans:
In 1848, Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’, as he called them. The first print shows the peoples of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes – marching in a long train, and offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it. On the earth in the foreground of the image lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions. In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Leading the procession, way past the statue of Liberty, are the United States and Switzerland, which by this time were already nation-states. France, identifiable by the revolutionary tricolour, has just reached the statue. She is followed by the peoples of Germany, bearing the black, red and gold flag. Interestingly, at the time when Sorrieu created this image, the German peoples did not yet exist as a united nation – the flag they carry is an expression of liberal hopes in 1848 to unify the numerous German-speaking principalities into a nation-state under a democratic constitution. Following the German peoples are the peoples of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia. From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene.
Q.4. According to Ernst Renan, ‘What is a Nation?’
Ans:
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ meaning ‘What is a Nation?’
‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavors, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will.
Q.5. How did the emergence of nationalism impact the politics of Europe?
Ans:
During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
Q.6. what is meant by the nation-state?
Ans:
A nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent. This commonness did not exist from time immemorial; it was forged through struggles, through the actions of leaders and the common people.
Q.7. the spirit of nationalism played important role in French Revolution. Explain.
Ans:
The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
Q.8. what measures were introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among French people?
Ans:
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie in the fatherland and le citoyen in the citizen emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Q.9. Write a note on Napoleonic Code.
Ans:
The Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
Q.10. which reforms were introduced by Napoleon?
Ans:
Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.  Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.11. what was the reaction of local people to the reforms introduced by French?
Ans:
The reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed. Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe.
Q.12. when did Napoleonic wars begin?
Ans:
The Napoleonic war began in 1797 when Napoleon invaded Italy.
Q.13. When was Vienna peace settlement signed?
Ans:
The Vienna Peace Settlement was signed in 1814-1815 after Fall of Napoleon.
Q.14. When did Greek struggle for independence begin?
Ans:
The Greek struggle for independence began in 1821.
Q.15. When did unification of Italy take place?
Ans:
The unification of Italy took place between the years 1859-1870
Q.16. Discuss the conditions of European nations before the emergence of the spirit of nationalism.
Ans.

  • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
  • Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies
  • The people within these kingdoms did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
  • The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland – as well as Bohemia
  • In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
  • In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish.
  • Such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity.
  • The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Q.17. Aristocrats enjoyed economic and political privileges. Explain.
Ans:

  • Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.
  • The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions.
  • They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses.
  • They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy.
  • Their families were often connected by ties of marriage.
  • This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group.
  • The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.

Q.18. When did the idea of abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity?
Ans:
Industrialization began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century. New social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals. In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.

Q.19. Explain the term liberalism.
Ans:
The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.

Q.20. why did women and non-propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal political rights in nineteenth century?
Ans:
In revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal political rights.

Q.21. Explain the term liberalism with reference to economic sphere.
Ans:
In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

Q.22. how did economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments?
Ans:

  • Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states.
  • Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
  • Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation.
  • Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
  • In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
  • The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
  • The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification.
  • A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Q.23. Write a note on conservatism.
Ans:

  • Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
  • Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.
  • Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realized that modernization could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.
  • It could make state power more effective and strong.
  • A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

Q.24. why was Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815?
Ans:

  • In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
  • The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
  • The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
  • The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
  • A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
  • Thus the kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
  • Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
  • In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
  • The main intention was to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon, and create a new conservative order in Europe.

Q.25. Why was the conservative order criticized?
Ans:
Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom associated with French revolution.

Q.26. Why did secret societies spring up in many European states after the Treaty of Vienna, 1815?
Ans:
During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.

Q.27. Write a short note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
Ans:
The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807; he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

Q.28. Write a note on July revolution of 1930.
Ans:

  • The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
  • The Bourbon kings, who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
  • The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Q.29. what impact the Greek war of independence had on nationalist feelings?
Ans:

  • Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.
  • The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821.
  • Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
  • Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire.
  • The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824.
  • Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.

Q.30. what is meant by Romanticism?
Ans:
Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation. Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist) was popularized. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.

Q.31. how did culture influenced the nationalist feelings?
Ans:
The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. This was especially so in the case of Poland, which had been partitioned at the end of the eighteenth century by the Great Powers – Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive through music and language.

Q.32. How did Karol Kurpinski helped to spread the message of nationalism?
Ans:
Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

Q.33. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. Explain.
Ans:

  • Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  • After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
  • In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.
  • Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  • Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.
  • As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.
  • The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

Q.34. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an increase in economic hardships. Explain.
Ans:

  • The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
  • In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
  • Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialization was more advanced than on the continent.
  • This was especially so in textile production, which was carried out mainly in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanized.
  • In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
  • The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.

Q.35. Write a note on peasants uprising in 1948.
Ans:
In 1848 food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads. Barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee. A National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work. National workshops to provide employment were set up.

Q.36. Discuss the German revolt of 1848.
Ans:

  • On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul.
  • They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
  • When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
  • While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded.
  • The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support.
  • In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.

Q.37. which was the controversial issue within the liberal movement?
Ans:

  • The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years.
  • Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.
  • Despite this they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly.

Q.38. what forced the monarchs to introduce reforms in the society?
Ans:

  • Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order.
  • Monarchs were beginning to realize that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
  • Hence, in the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
  • Thus serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
  • The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.

Q.39. Describe the nation building process in Germany.
Ans:

  • Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
  • This liberal initiative to nation-building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
  • From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  • Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
  • On the bitterly cold morning of 18 January 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the chief minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
  • The nation-building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.
  • The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.

Q.4.0 who was the chief architect of German unification?
Ans: Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process of German unification.

Q.41. write a short note on Cavour.
Ans:

  • Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
  • Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian.
  • Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

Q.42. Discuss the condition of Italy before unification.
Ans:

  • Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire.
  • During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.
  • The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.
  • Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations

Q.43. write a note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
Ans:
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.

Q.44. write a note on Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Ans:

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi is perhaps the most celebrated of Italian freedom fighters.
  • He came from a family engaged in coastal trade and was a sailor in the merchant navy.
  • In 1833 he met Mazzini, joined the Young Italy movement and participated in a republican uprising in Piedmont in 1834.
  • The uprising was suppressed and Garibaldi had to flee to South America, where he lived in exile till 1848.
  • In 1854, he supported Victor Emmanuel II in his efforts to unify the Italian states.
  • In 1860, Garibaldi led the famous expedition of the Thousand to South Italy. Fresh volunteers kept joining through the course of the campaign, till their numbers grew to about 30,000. They were popularly known as Red Shirts.
  • In 1867, Garibaldi led an army of volunteers to Rome to fight the last obstacle to the unification of Italy, the Papal States where a French garrison was stationed.
  • The Red Shirts proved to be no match for the combined French and Papal troops.
  • It was only in 1870 when, during the war with Prussia, France withdrew its troops from Rome that the Papal States were finally joined Italy.

Q.45. How did growth of a British identity suppressed Scotland’s cultural identity?
Ans:

  • The Act of Union in 1707 between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
  • The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.
  • The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
  • The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence.
  • The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

Q.46. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom. Give reasons.
Ans:

  • Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants.
  • The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.
  • Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.
  • After a failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

Q.47. How were nations portrayed by artists during early eighteenth century?
Ans:

  • Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation.
  • In other words they represented a country as if it were a person.
  • Nations were then portrayed as female figures.
  • The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
  • The female figure became an allegory of the nation.

Q.48. write a note on Marianne, a female allegory in France.
Ans:

  • In France the female allegory was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
  • Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
  • Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
  • Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

Q.49. who was Germania?
Ans:
Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Q.50. what does the following symbols mean?
Ans:
A] Broken chains – Being freed
B] Breastplate with eagle – Symbol of the German empire – strength
C] Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
D] Sword – Readiness to fight
E] Olive branch around the sword – willingness to make peace
F] Black, red and gold tricolour – Flag of the liberal-nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the
German states
G] Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era

Q.51. How did Balkan region increase the tension in Europe?
Ans:

  • The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.
  • The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
  • A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  • All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernization and internal reforms but with very little success.
  • The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
  • Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
  • As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
  • The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
  • Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.
  • During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might.
  • These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power – Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area.
  • This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First woorld war.

 

PSA 2014-15 Answer Key for Class 9 – Set D1

PSA Answer Key for Class 9 – Set D1

Section (A) – English Section B Section C
Question Answer Question Answer Question Answer
1 1 25 2 43 3
2 1 26 4 44 3
3 4 27 2 45 1
4 2 28 3 46 1
5 1 29 1 47 1
6 1 30 3 48 4
7 4 31 4 49 3
8 1 32 2 50 1
9 1 33 1 51 2
10 1 34 3 52 3
11 2 35 1 53 4
12 4 36 2 54 2
13 2 37 3 55 1
14 1 38 3 56 4
15 3 39 4 57 2
16 3 40 3 58 1
17 1 41 2 59 4
18 2 42 1 60 2
19 1
20 4
21 4
22 1
23 3
24 1

Question Papers – Set D1