Complete package of the last 4 years question papers of all the subjects of Class X Summative Assessment 2. You check easily download it and take print out for practicing.
All the best of the summatives !
Complete package of the last 4 years question papers of all the subjects of Class X Summative Assessment 2. You check easily download it and take print out for practicing.
All the best of the summatives !
Fill in the blanks
1] In 1848, Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
2] In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
3] Absolutist, in history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralized, militarized and repressive.
3] During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
4] The concept of nationalism led to emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
5] A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal is known as Plebiscite.
6] France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch.
7] The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
8] The Civil Code of 1804 was known as the Napoleonic Code.
9] Napoleonic wars began when Napoleon invaded Italy in 1797.
10] The Greek struggle for independence began in 1821.
11] The Unification of Italy occurred between the years 1859 – 1870.
12] The Unification of Germany occurred between the years 1866 – 1871.
13] The Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria-Hungary.
14] In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
15] In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish language.
16] Industrialization began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century.
17] The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.
18] In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
19] In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
20] Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit ofconservatism.
21] The objective of Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
22] Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic in nature.
23] The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
24] Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.
25] The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.
26] The German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people das volk.
27] The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.
28] In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
29] During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states.
30] Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
31] Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.
32] Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
33] In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
34] Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
35] During the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
36] Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
37] The symbol of Crown of oak leaves meant heroism.
38] the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called theBalkans.
39] A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
A] Absolutist – Literally, a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralized, militarized and repressive.
B] Utopian – A vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
C] Plebiscite – A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
D] Conservatism – A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
E] Ideology – System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
Questions & Answers
Q.1. How did the artists of the time of the French REvolution personified Liberty?
The artists of the time of the French Revolution personified Liberty as a female figure.
Q.2. what was Sorrieu’s utopian vision?
In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
Q.3. What does The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics – The Pact Between Nations, the painting prepared by Sorrieu depict?
In 1848, Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’, as he called them. The first print shows the peoples of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes – marching in a long train, and offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it. On the earth in the foreground of the image lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions. In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Leading the procession, way past the statue of Liberty, are the United States and Switzerland, which by this time were already nation-states. France, identifiable by the revolutionary tricolour, has just reached the statue. She is followed by the peoples of Germany, bearing the black, red and gold flag. Interestingly, at the time when Sorrieu created this image, the German peoples did not yet exist as a united nation – the flag they carry is an expression of liberal hopes in 1848 to unify the numerous German-speaking principalities into a nation-state under a democratic constitution. Following the German peoples are the peoples of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia. From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene.
Q.4. According to Ernst Renan, ‘What is a Nation?’
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ meaning ‘What is a Nation?’
‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavors, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will.
Q.5. How did the emergence of nationalism impact the politics of Europe?
During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
Q.6. what is meant by the nation-state?
A nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent. This commonness did not exist from time immemorial; it was forged through struggles, through the actions of leaders and the common people.
Q.7. the spirit of nationalism played important role in French Revolution. Explain.
The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
Q.8. what measures were introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among French people?
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie in the fatherland and le citoyen in the citizen emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Q.9. Write a note on Napoleonic Code.
The Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
Q.10. which reforms were introduced by Napoleon?
Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.11. what was the reaction of local people to the reforms introduced by French?
The reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed. Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe.
Q.12. when did Napoleonic wars begin?
The Napoleonic war began in 1797 when Napoleon invaded Italy.
Q.13. When was Vienna peace settlement signed?
The Vienna Peace Settlement was signed in 1814-1815 after Fall of Napoleon.
Q.14. When did Greek struggle for independence begin?
The Greek struggle for independence began in 1821.
Q.15. When did unification of Italy take place?
The unification of Italy took place between the years 1859-1870
Q.16. Discuss the conditions of European nations before the emergence of the spirit of nationalism.
Q.17. Aristocrats enjoyed economic and political privileges. Explain.
Q.18. When did the idea of abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity?
Industrialization began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century. New social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals. In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
Q.19. Explain the term liberalism.
The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
Q.20. why did women and non-propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal political rights in nineteenth century?
In revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
Q.21. Explain the term liberalism with reference to economic sphere.
In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q.22. how did economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments?
Q.23. Write a note on conservatism.
Q.24. why was Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815?
Q.25. Why was the conservative order criticized?
Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom associated with French revolution.
Q.26. Why did secret societies spring up in many European states after the Treaty of Vienna, 1815?
During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
Q.27. Write a short note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807; he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Q.28. Write a note on July revolution of 1930.
Q.29. what impact the Greek war of independence had on nationalist feelings?
Q.30. what is meant by Romanticism?
Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation. Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist) was popularized. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.
Q.31. how did culture influenced the nationalist feelings?
The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. This was especially so in the case of Poland, which had been partitioned at the end of the eighteenth century by the Great Powers – Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive through music and language.
Q.32. How did Karol Kurpinski helped to spread the message of nationalism?
Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Q.33. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. Explain.
Q.34. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an increase in economic hardships. Explain.
Q.35. Write a note on peasants uprising in 1948.
In 1848 food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads. Barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee. A National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work. National workshops to provide employment were set up.
Q.36. Discuss the German revolt of 1848.
Q.37. which was the controversial issue within the liberal movement?
Q.38. what forced the monarchs to introduce reforms in the society?
Q.39. Describe the nation building process in Germany.
Q.4.0 who was the chief architect of German unification?
Ans: Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process of German unification.
Q.41. write a short note on Cavour.
Q.42. Discuss the condition of Italy before unification.
Q.43. write a note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.
Q.44. write a note on Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Q.45. How did growth of a British identity suppressed Scotland’s cultural identity?
Q.46. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom. Give reasons.
Q.47. How were nations portrayed by artists during early eighteenth century?
Q.48. write a note on Marianne, a female allegory in France.
Q.49. who was Germania?
Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Q.50. what does the following symbols mean?
A] Broken chains – Being freed
B] Breastplate with eagle – Symbol of the German empire – strength
C] Crown of oak leaves – Heroism
D] Sword – Readiness to fight
E] Olive branch around the sword – willingness to make peace
F] Black, red and gold tricolour – Flag of the liberal-nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the
G] Rays of the rising sun – Beginning of a new era
Q.51. How did Balkan region increase the tension in Europe?
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